Die historische Schichtung des klassisch-arabischen Verbsystems
Pages 36 - 70
In classical Arabic, the two forms of the verb faʿala and yafʿal are commonly associated with the meaning of past tense / perfective aspect vs. non-past tense / imperfective aspect. Apart from that, these forms are used to express a number of additional notions that seem to have no immediate connection to these primary meanings. The present article argues that this multiplicity of usages and meanings is the result of a historical development. While ancient usages of the verb forms have survived in certain syntactic and semantic contexts, the primary meaning of the form has changed. This explains why in some cases the same circumstances can be expressed by both forms. For in-stance, the perfect tense can be negated as both mā faʿala and lam yafʿal. It is therefore neither possible nor necessary to establish one overall meaning for each of the two forms – faʿala and yafʿal – from which all of its usages can be derived. The language system simultaneously accepts very different functions for each of the two forms.
Keywords: Klassisches Arabisch; Grammatik; Verbsystem; historische Grammatik; Tempus; Aspekt